This blog was written by an independent guest blogger.
The US Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has released a strategy to help the federal government embrace a zero-trust approach to cybersecurity.
Overview of OMB’s Zero Trust strategy
Released on January 26, 2022, the strategy identifies “specific security goals” that heads of Federal Civilian Executive Branch (FCEB) agencies must achieve by the end of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2024. Provided below are some of these objectives.
- In its Executive Order (EO) 14028, The White House states that FCEB agencies must develop their own plans for implementing a zero-trust architecture (ZTA). OMB’s strategy goes beyond this mandate by requiring FCEB agencies to incorporate additional requirements and submitting them to OMB and the US Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) within 60 days of the memorandum taking effect. FCEB agencies also need to submit a budget estimate for FY 2024 within that period. In the shorter term, OMB explains that in-scope entities can use internal funding or seek money from alternative sources to achieve primary goals in FY 2022 and FY 2023.
- OMB’s strategy notes that FCEB agencies must designate and identify a lead for implementing zero trust at their organization within 30 days of the strategy entering into force. Ultimately, OMB will use those leads to coordinate the implementation of zero trust across the federal government. It’ll also refer to them to orchestrate planning and implementation efforts within each agency.
Identity and MFA as key tenets
The security goals identified above align with several pillars of zero trust set forth by CISA. “Identity” is one of the most important of those elements. The purpose of “Identity” for zero trust is to have agency staff use enterprise-managed identities to access the applications they need to perform their job duties. The best way to do that is to invest in centralized identity management systems and integrate them into both applications, and common platforms, noted OMB in its federal strategy. Specifically, agencies can implement phishing-resistant multi-factor authentication (MFA) at the application layer as well as require staff, contractors, and partners to enroll in this scheme. (This option must also be an option for public users.) Finally, agencies must design their password policies in such a way that doesn’t require the use of special characters or require regular password rotation.
A driving factor behind the importance of identity and MFA to zero trust is the growth in cloud adoption. In December 2021, 90% of O’Reilly subscribers revealed their organizations were using the cloud at that time—up from 88% a year earlier. The study went on to reveal that at least 75% of respondents in organizations across every sector were using the cloud, with retail & commerce, finance & banking, and software registering as some of the most active industries. Looking ahead, nearly half (48%) of survey participants said that their organizations were planning to migrate at least half of their applications to the cloud in the coming year. One-fifth of personnel said they intended to migrate all their applications within that period.
This growing focus on the cloud means that literally everyone is an outsider, as I told TechSpective last August. In response, organizations need to implement a scheme by which they can validate the authenticity of approved identities and their attributes for users, services, and devices.
Giving authentication and identity the emphasis they deserve
FCEB agencies and other organizations can emphasize authentication and identity protection for zero trust by laying the groundwork for an Identity and Access Management (IAM) strategy. In formulating this plan, organizations should follow the CISA’s MFA guidelines. They then need to clarify which authentication methods they’ll require of their users and plan how to roll out authentication for their users. Finally, entities can develop access rules and policies to shape who can access certain types of data and applications along with the conditions under which they can do so.
Regarding MFA in particular, agencies and other organizations can consider combining MFA with other best practices such as Single Sign-On to improve account security while reducing user friction. To this end, they can use an integrated service or solution that offers multi-factor authentication, SSO and policy-based access.